Viollet-le Duc restored the flèche, or spirelet, of the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris, which had been partially destroyed and desecrated during the French Revolution, in a slightly different style, and added gargoyles which had not originally been present to the façade. In 1855, he completed the restoration, begun in 1845, of the stained glass windows of the Sainte-Chapelle, and in 1862 he declared it a national historical monument. The major buildings, including the Opera House and the St. Augustine church, were designed to be the focal points of the new avenues, and to be visible at a great distance. [1], Another characteristic of Napoleon III style is the adaptation of the design of the building to its function and the characteristics of the material used. The Second French Empire (French: Second Empire), officially the French Empire (French: Empire français), was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France. Please call to receive a copy of our award-winning wine list. The church of Saint-Jean-Baptiste-de-Belleville in the neo-Gothic style by Jean-Baptiste Lassus (1854–59), The interior of Saint-Augustin; with the roof supported by slender iron columns (1860–71), The church of Saint-Pierre-de-Montrouge (14th arrondissement) by Joseph Auguste Émile Vaudremer (1863–70), The church of Saint-Ambroise (11th arrondissement) by Théodore Ballu (1863–68), Marseille Cathedral by Léon Vaudoyer and Henri-Jacques Espérandieu (1852–96), West façade of the Cathedral of Clermont-Ferrand by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc (1866–84), During the Second Empire, under the influence particularly of the architect and historian Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, French religious architecture finally broke away from the neoclassical style which had dominated Paris church architecture since the 18th century. Chairs were elaborately upholstered with fringes, tassels, and expensive fabrics. Gustave Courbet's painting of ordinary young women taking a nap by the Seine (1856) caused a scandal at the Paris Salon, much to the delight of the artist. The Napoleon III style, also known as the Second Empire style, was a highly eclectic style of architecture and decorative arts, which used elements of many different historical styles, and also made innovative use of modern materials, such as iron frameworks and glass skylights. Renoir studied art in Paris in 1862 and showed this painting in the Paris Salon of 1869. The old theaters on the "Boulevard of Crime" were demolished to make way for a new boulevard, but larger new theaters were constructed in the center of the city. Not all churches under Napoleon III were built in the Gothic style. During the premiere, with Wagner in the audience, the Jockey Club members whistled and jeered from the first notes of the Overture. They were usually constructed of walnut or oak, or sometimes of poirier stained to resemble ebony.[14]. Le Second Empire coïncide quasi exactement, entre deux dépressions économiques (celle de 1817-1847 et celle de 1873-1896) au quart de siècle de prospérité économique internationale qu'a connu la France au XIX e siècle [52]. Another aspect of the Napoleon III style was the restoration of historical monuments which had been badly damaged during the French Revolution, or were threatened with destruction by the growth of cities. It flourished during the reign of Emperor Napoleon III in France (1852–1871) and had an important influence on architecture and decoration in the rest of Europe and the United States. It was a popular and critical triumph, playing for two hundred twenty-eight nights. [18], The Paris Salon was directed by the Count Émilien de Nieuwerkerke, the Superintendent of Fine Arts, who was known for his conservative tastes. From 1857 to 1861 he worked on frescoes for the Chapelle des Anges at the Church of St. Sulpice in Paris. [21], The government of Napoleon III also commissioned artists to produce decorative works for public buildings. All Rights Reserved. During the Second Empire, before the contraction of the Opéra Garnier, Paris had three major opera houses: The Salle Le Pelletier, where the Emperor barely escaped a terrorist bomb in 1858; the Théâtre Lyrique; and Les Italiens, where only Italian works were presented, in Italian. The Bois de Boulogne, built between 1852 and 1858, was designed to give a place for relaxation and recreation to all the classes of Parisians. The artists and their friends complained, and the complaints reached Napoleon III. In 1855, when his submissions to the Salon were rejected, he put on his own exhibit of forty of his paintings in a nearby building. Edgar Degas (1834–1917), the son of a banker, studied academic art at the École des Beaux-Arts and travelled to Italy to study the Renaissance painters. Napoleon III also built monumental fountains to decorate the heart of the city; his Paris city architect, Gabriel Davioud, designed the polychrome Fontaine Saint-Michel (officially the Fontaine de la Paix) at the beginning of Haussmann's new Boulevard Saint-Michel. [25], The Seasons turning the celestial Sphere for the Fontaine de l'Observatoire by Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux (1867-74), Why be born a slave? The sheriff's department has released new photos of a deputy recovering in the hospital after she and her partner were ambushed in Compton. His Majesty, wishing to let the public judge the legitimacy of these complaints, has decided that the works of art which were refused should be displayed in another part of the Palace of Industry. Unfortunately, Wagner was unpopular with both the French critics and with the members of the Jockey Club, an influential French social society. [17] They built four major parks in the north, south, east and west of the city, replanted and renovated the historic parks, and added dozens of small squares and gardens, so that no one lived more than ten minutes from a park or square. Critical opinion was generally hostile, though Berlioz praised the work, writing that it "does M. Bizet the greatest honour". Henri Labrouste (1801–1875) also used iron and glass to create a dramatic cathedral-like reading room for the National Library, Richelieu site (1854–1875).[11]. It was held every two years until 1861, and every year thereafter, in the Palais de l'Industrie, a gigantic exhibit hall built for the Paris Universal Exposition of 1855. LOS ANGELES (KABC) -- The second of two Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department deputies who were ambushed in Compton has been released from the hospital, the department said Monday. Bronzes of the 19th Century (First ed.). Great News... both of our Deputies from the #ComptonAmbush have been discharged from the hospital and are resting. It was so named for the architectural elements in vogue during the era of the Second French Empire. A major decorative painter whose career was launched under Napoleon III was Puvis de Chavannes. [15], New types of architecture connected with the economic expansion: railroad stations, hotels, office buildings, department stores and exposition halls, occupied the center of Paris, which previously had been largely residential. LOS ANGELES (KABC) -- The second of two Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department deputies who were ambushed in Compton has been released from the hospital, the department said Monday. The Avenue de l'Opéra painted by Camille Pissarro (1898). They ranged from a single singer with a piano to elegant cafes with orchestras. The Second Empire also saw the completion or restoration of several architecture treasures: the wings of the Louvre Museum were finally completed, the famed stained glass windows and structure of the Sainte-Chapelle were restored by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, and the Cathedral of Notre-Dame underwent extensive restoration. The French Renaissance and the Henry II style were popular influences on chests and cabinets, buffets and credences, which were massive and built like small cathedrals, decorated with columns, frontons, cartouches, mascarons, and carved angels and chimeras. [31], Georges Bizet wrote his first opera, Les pêcheurs de perles, for the Théâtre Lyrique company. The tastes of Napoleon III for paintings were quite traditional, favoring the academic Beaux-Arts style of history paintings and allegorical paintings. In 1863, the jury of the Paris Salon refused all submissions by avant-garde artists, including those by Édouard Manet, Camille Pissarro and Johan Jongkind. More than a thousand visitors a day came to see now-famous paintings as Édouard Manet's Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe and James McNeill Whistler's Symphony in White, No. Kjellberg, Pierre (1994). 2. [20] The journalist Émile Zola reported that visitors pushed to get into the crowded galleries where the refused paintings were hung, and the rooms were full of the laughter and mocking comments of many of the spectators. Located in the beautifully restored Dodd-Hinsdale House in downtown Raleigh, Second Empire satisfies the highest of standards. While the exteriors of most Second Empire monumental buildings usually remained eclectic, a revolution was taking place inside; based on the model of The Crystal Palace in London (1851), Parisian architects began to use cast iron frames and walls of glass in their buildings. His style perfectly complemented the historical styles, but was original and bold enough to stand on its own. Pavillon de Flore south façade by Hector Lefuel (1864–68), Western façade of Pavillon de l'Horloge of the Louvre by Hector Lefuel, Gates of the Louvre by Hector Lefuel (1861), Grand Salon of Napoleon III apartments in the Louvre. While the paintings were ridiculed by many critics and visitors, the work of the avant-garde became known for the first time to the French public, and it took its place alongside the more traditional style of painting. [26] Carpeaux entered the École des Beaux-Arts in 1844 and won the Prix de Rome in 1854, and moving to Rome to find inspiration, he there studied the works of Michelangelo, Donatello and Verrocchio. Neo-Gothic and other historical styles began to be built, particularly in the eight new arrondissements farther from the center added by Napoleon III in 1860. The crapaud (or toad) armchair was low, with a thickly padded back and arms, and a fringe that hid the legs of the chair. Please call to receive a copy of our award-winning wine list. [28], A new composer, Jacques Offenbach, soon emerged to challenge Hervé. Carmen went on to become one of the most performed operas of all time. He was unhappy, however, that his operas were less successful in Paris than those of his chief rival, Meyerbeer; he returned to Italy and did not come back for several years. Claude Monet exhibited a portrait of his future wife Camille Doncieux at the Paris Salon of 1866 under the title Woman in a Green Dress. The expanded use of new building materials, especially iron frames, allowed the construction of much larger buildings for commerce and industry.[16]. In 1858 he took a step further with his first full-length operetta, with four acts and a chorus, Orpheus in the Underworld. Dean, Winton (1980). The interior of the Opéra Garnier by Charles Garnier combined architectural elements of the French Renaissance, Palladian architecture, and French Baroque, and managed to give it coherence and harmony. The result was Les vêpres siciliennes. [4], The grand stairway of the Paris Opera, designed by Charles Garnier, in the style he called simply "Napoleon III", The interior of one of the giant glass and iron pavilions of Les Halles designed by Victor Baltard (1853–1870), The reading room of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Richelieu site (1854–1875), was designed by Henri Labrouste, The Church of Saint Augustine (1860–1871), designed by architect Victor Baltard, had a revolutionary iron frame, but an eclectic Neo-Renaissance exterior, The Gare du Nord, designed to be one of the new gateways to Paris, with an iron framework combined with allegorical statues of French cities, Second Empire is an architectural style most popular in the latter half of the 19th century and early years of the 20th century. His motto was "never lose that first impression which we feel." Step Up’s Inland Empire Housing First Programs began in October 2016. He then opened up a new theater, the Bouffes-Parisiens, which opened in 1855 with a work called Ba-ta-clan, a Chinese-style Musical. Hervé opened his own theater, the Folies Concertantes on the Boulevard du Temple, the main theater district of Paris, and they were also staged at other theatres around the city. [28], Grand opera and other musical genres also flourished under Napoleon III. [28] The first works were staged in 1848 by August Florimond Ronger, better known as Hervé. The Napoleon III style of landscape design for urban parks was very influential outside of France. In 1868, he began to frequent the Café Guerbois, where he met Manet, Monet, Renoir and the other artists of a new, more natural school, and began to develop his own style. Second Empire, (1852–70) period in France under the rule of Emperor Napoleon III (the original empire having been that of Napoleon I). They both have a long road to recovery and #LASD appreciates your continued prayers and all the support. Its suitability for super-scaling allowed it to be widely used in the design of municipal and corporate buildings. Davioud's other major Napoleon III works included the two theatres at the Place du Châtelet, as well as the ornamental fence of Parc Monceau and the kiosks and temples of the Bois de Boulogne, Bois de Vincennes, and other Paris parks. The expansion of the city limits by Napoleon III and Haussmann's new boulevards called for the construction of a variety of new public buildings, including the new Tribunal du Commerce (1861–67), influenced by the French Renaissance style, by Théodore Ballu; and the new city hall of the 1st arrondissement, by Jacques Ignace Hittorff (1855–60), in a combination of Renaissance and Gothic styles. [22], Delacroix also received important official commissions. "[19], Following Napoleon's decree, an exhibit of the rejected paintings, called the Salon des Refusés, was held in another part of the Palace of Industry, where the Salon took place. [32] Public reaction was lukewarm, and the opera's run ended after 18 performances. Between the two structures, the architect Théodore Ballu constructed a Gothic bell tower (1862), to link the two buildings. After the final night, Napoleon III granted Offenbach French citizenship, and his name changed formally from Jacob to Jacques. Examples include the Gare du Nord railway station by Jacques Ignace Hittorff, the Church of Saint Augustin by Victor Baltard, and particularly the iron-framed structures of the market of Les Halles and the reading room of the Bibliothèque nationale in Paris, both also by Victor Baltard. The restoration of Notre-Dame, begun in 1845, continued for twenty-five years. Wood panelling was often encrusted with rare and exotic woods, or darkened to resemble ebony. Our Dinner Menu changes seasonally and features Chef Daniel Schurr’s creations from the freshest seasonal ingredients. He was scornful of the new school of Realist painters led by Gustave Courbet. When ordering from Chef Schurr’s fine menu, ask one of our knowledgeable servers which wine would best accompany your meal. The buildings of the renovation show a singularity of purpose and design, a consistency of urban planning that was unusual for the period. In its early years (1852–59), the empire was authoritarian but enjoyed economic growth and pursued a favourable foreign policy. The American landscape designer Frederick Law Olmsted had a map of the Bois de Boulogne on the wall of his office. Try one, or two, along with a cup of fresh-brewed coffee or with specially selected dessert wines. California passes first-in-nation plastics recycling law, Six arrested in Burbank for EDD scam, found with $40K cash, gun, Newsom urges CA to get flu shot before next COVID-19 wave, Santa Ana winds, heat bring increased threat of wildfires across parts of SoCal, 1st beer label from new South LA brewery will benefit children, Glass Fire explodes to 11,000 acres in NorCal, LIVE: LA County officials give COVID-19 update, Here's how Prop. His work was rewarded; the opera was a critical and popular success, performed 150 times, rather than the originally proposed forty performances. All Rights Reserved. Charles Gounod wrote his first opera, Sapho, in 1851 at the urging of his friend, the singer Pauline Viardot; it was a commercial failure. After just three performances, the Opera was pulled from the repertoire. The Napoleon III or Second Empire style took its inspiration from several different periods and styles, which were often combined together in the same building or interior. After 1858, they became longer and more elaborate, with larger casts and several acts, and took the name first of operas bouffes, then operettas. London: Macmillan. For the first time, the profession of singer was given formal status, and for the first time composers could seek royalties for the performance of their songs.[34]. El Segundo / s ə ˈ ɡ ʌ n d oʊ / is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. Second Empire architecture in the United States and Canada, http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9066516, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Napoleon_III_style&oldid=977329631#Architecture, Wikipedia articles that may have off-topic sections from October 2019, All articles that may have off-topic sections, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 September 2020, at 06:39. [3] The façade of the Opéra Garnier employed seventeen different colored materials, including various marbles, stones, and bronze. The style was described by Émile Zola, not an admirer of the Empire, as "the opulent bastard child of all the styles". Born in Germany, Offenbach was first a cello player with the orchestra of the Opéra-Comique, then the conductor of the orchestra for the Comédie-Française, composing music performed between the acts. Renault, Christophe and Lazé, Christophe, Renault, Christophe and Lazé, Christophe, 'Les Styles de l'architecture et du mobilier. Marseille Cathedral, constructed from 1852 to 1896, was designed in a Byzantine Revival style from 1852 to 1896, principally by Léon Vaudoyer and Henri-Jacques Espérandieu. He was persuaded to return to stage Don Carlos, commissioned especially for the Paris Opera. Second Empire style, architectural style that was dominant internationally during the second half of the 19th century. Our Pastry Chefs are up bright and early preparing the delicious desserts found on our Dessert Menu. They also bake our breads fresh daily. Major examples of the style include the Opéra Ga… New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. The monumental gates of the Parc Monceau designed by the city architect Gabriel Davioud, The Temple of Love on Lac Daumesnil in the Bois de Vincennes (1865), Napoleon III named Georges-Eugène Haussmann his new Prefect of Seine in 1853, and commissioned him to build new parks on the edges of the city, on the model of Hyde Park in London, the parks he had frequented when he was in exile. At the time, it was the largest opera house in the world, but much of the interior space was devoted to purely decorative spaces: grand stairways, huge foyers for promenading, and large private boxes. 1: The White Girl. The works of Hervé included Latrouillatt and Truffaldini, or the inconveniences of a vendetta infinitely prolonged too long and Agamemnon, or the Camel with Two Humps. Hortense Schneider as la Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein (1867), The old Paris Opera on Rue Pelletier (1864), Under Napoleon III, a new, lighter musical genre, the operetta, was born in Paris, and flourished especially in the work of Jacques Offenbach. He made sketches in the forests around Paris, then reworked them into final paintings in his studio. It emerged not from the classical opera, but from the comic opera and vaudeville, which were very popular at the time. Verdi signed a contract in 1852 to create a new work for the Paris Opera, in collaboration with Eugène Scribe. Another principle was polychromy, an abundance of color obtained by using colored marble, malachite, onyx, porphyry, mosaics, and silver or gold plated bronze. He died after the thirty-third performance. The Birth of Venus, by Alexandre Cabanel, was purchased by Napoleon III at the Paris Salon of 1863, now in Musée d'Orsay. His sculpture La Danse for the façade of the Paris Opera (1869) caused a scandal when it was installed, because of the flamboyant pose of the nude figures.[27]. You are sure to be pleased! Luncheon on the Grass by Édouard Manet also caused a scandal at the Paris Salon of 1863 and helped make Manet famous. Grand Salon of Napoleon III in the Louvre. The architect was Charles Garnier (1825–1898), who won the competition for the design when he was only thirty-seven. A portrait of Édouard Manet and his wife by Edgar Degas (1868–69). [10], The most dramatic use of iron and glass was in the new central market of Paris, Les Halles (1853–1870), an ensemble of huge iron and glass pavilions designed by Victor Baltard (1805–1874) and Félix-Emmanuel Callet (1792–1854). [29], Napoleon III intervened personally to have Richard Wagner come back to Paris; Wagner rehearsed the orchestra sixty-three times for the first French production of Tannhäuser on March 13, 1861. Architectural and art style, most popular between 1865 and 1880, Urbanism – Haussmann's renovation of Paris, sfn error: no target: CITEREFDucher1988page_190 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFDucher1988page_188 (, Copplestone, Trewin, ed., World Architecture: An illustrated history from earliest times, Crescent Books, New York, 1963 pp.310-311, Renault, Christophe and Lazé, Christophe, 'Les Styles de l'architecture et du mobilier. Developing from a tendency of architects of the second quarter of the 19th century to use architectural schemes drawn from the periods of the Italian Renaissance, Louis XIV, and In 1853, he wrote a short musical scene performed between acts, then a more ambitious short comedy, Pepito, for the Théâtre des Variétés. The Lions Gate of the Louvre Palace by Hector Lefuel is a Louis-Napoléon version of French Renaissance architecture; few visitors to the Louvre realize it is a 19th-century addition to the building. In 1870, Napoleon III proposed giving the Legion of Honour to Courbet, but Courbet disdainfully rejected the offer. His office issued a statement: "Numerous complaints have come to the Emperor on the subject of the works of art which were refused by the jury of the Exposition. They included "The Battle of Jacob with the Angel", "Saint Michael Slaying the Dragon", and "The Expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple". A medal from the Salon assured an artist of commissions from wealthy patrons or from the French government. The upholstered pouffe, or footstool, appeared, along with the angle sofa and unusual chairs for intimate conversations between two persons (Le confident) or three people (Le indiscret). The parks of Paris, provided entertainment and relaxation for all classes of Parisians during the Second Empire.[17]. The largest new church built in Paris during the Second Empire was Church of Saint Augustine (1860–71) by Victor Baltard, the designer of the metal pavilions of the market of Les Halles. La Grenouillére by Pierre-Auguste Renoir. El Segundo, from Spanish, means "The Second". Distinguished Restaurants of North America (DiRoNa) - Twice! Wine Spectator - 8 years running: 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006. The Napoleon III style is inseparable from renovation of Paris under Georges-Eugène Haussmann, the Emperor's Prefect of the Seine between 1852 and 1870. Born in Valenciennes, Nord, son of a mason, his early studies were under François Rude. Haussmann assembled a remarkable team: Jean-Charles Adolphe Alphand, the city's first Director of the new Service of Promenades and Plantations; Jean-Pierre Barillet-Deschamps, the city's first gardener-in-chief; Eugène Belgrand, a hydraulic engineer who rebuilt the city's sewers and water supply, and provided the water needed for the parks; and Gabriel Davioud, the city's chief architect, who designed chalets, temples, grottos, follies, fences, gates, lodges, lampposts and other park architecture. Dining room of Napoleon III apartments at Louvre, Napoleon III's many projects included the completion of the Louvre Palace, which adjoined his own residence in the Tuileries Palace. The construction of the railroad stations in Paris brought thousands of tourists from around France and Europe to the city, and increased the demand for music and entertainment. Tapestry work on furniture was very much in style. Gustave Courbet (1819–1872) was the leader of the school of realist painters during the Second Empire who depicted the lives of ordinary people and rural life, as well as landscapes. Verdi complained that the Paris orchestra and chorus were unruly and undisciplined, and rehearsed them an unheard-of one hundred and sixty-one times before he felt they were ready. During the Second Empire, the Paris Salon was the most important event of the year for painters, engravers and sculptors. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing, Ltd. p. 174. Liberal reforms were gradually Copyright © 2020 KABC-TV. Boulevard Haussmann, with the classic Haussmann-style apartment buildings (1870), The Fontaine Saint-Michel by Gabriel Davioud (1856–61), Mairie of the 19th arrondissement in Paris, by Gabriel Davioud, New city hall of 1st Arrondissement (1855–60) (left) and new bell tower (1862) matching the Gothic Church of Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois. In 1855, taking advantage of the first Paris International Exposition, which brought enormous crowds to the city, he rented a theater on the Champs-Élysées and put on his musicals to full houses. It had its first performance on 30 September 1863. Under the direction of Chef Schurr, Second Empire has won the Wine Spectator Award of Excellence since 1999. The early works were limited to two performers on the stage at a time, and usually were no longer than a single act. [5] As the Second Empire style evolved from its 17th-century Renaissance foundations, it acquired a mix of earlier European styles, most notably the Baroque, often combined with mansard roofs and/or low, square-based domes. Numerous public edifices: railway stations, the tribunal de commerce, and the Palais Garnier were constructed in the style. Under the direction of Chef Schurr, Second Empire has won the Wine Spectator Award of Excellence since 1999. This program was largely carried out by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, whose neo-Gothic design for a new Paris Opera later came in second to that of Garnier. Viollet-le-Duc's restoration was criticized in the late 20th century for sometimes pursuing the spirit of the original work, rather than strict accuracy (for example, by using a type of Gothic tower cap from northern France for the walls of the Cité de Carcassonne, rather than a tower design from that region), but in Carcassonne and other cases the works would have been destroyed entirely without the intervention of Napoleon III and Viollet-le-Duc. Napoleon III named Ingres a Grand Officer of the Légion d'honneur. Second Empire strives to deliver the best food, service, and atmosphere in the Triangle. [6], The style quickly spread and evolved as Baroque Revival architecture throughout Europe and across the Atlantic. [33], The styles of popular music also evolved under Napoleon III. This law was challenged by one café-concert owner, who hired a former actress from the Comédie-Française to perform scenes of classic plays in costume. This menu is offered in all dining areas. The new age of railways and the enormous increase in travel that it caused required new train stations, large hotels, exposition halls and department stores in Paris. In Sadie, Stanley (ed.). © 2007-2020 Second Empire Restaurant and Tavern. (The painting was destroyed in 1871 when the building was set afire by the Paris Commune.) Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, 1868, National Museum in Warsaw, La Danse (The Dance), for facade of the Opéra Garnier (installed 1869), Ugolino and His Sons, Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux 1857–60 Metropolitan Museum of Art, Le Triomphe de Flore (The Triumph of Flora), by Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux. The first year of funding served San Bernardino County, and Riverside County was added one year later. In the case of the Louvre in particular, the restorations were sometimes more imaginative than precisely historical. The new city hall was located next to the Gothic church of Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois. The salon of the Empress Eugénie at the Tuileries Palace, Chest in Napoleon III style, with polychrome floral decoration, The chair for intimate conversations called le confident, The "Indiscreet", a chair for three persons, A crapaud armchair with fringe hiding the legs, from the apartment of Victor Hugo. His favorite artists included Alexandre Cabanel, Ernest Meissonier, Jean-Léon Gérôme, and William-Adolphe Bouguereau who received important commissions. He wrote afterwards, "I am not a composer for Paris I believe in inspiration; others only care about how the pieces are put together". He was unable to have his work performed in the major theaters, so he tried a different approach. It was not performed again until 1886. Located on the Santa Monica Bay, it was incorporated on January 18, 1917, and part of the South Bay Cities Council of Governments. While the academic painters dominated the Salon, new artists and new movements rose to prominent prominence under Napoleon III.